Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist

July 25, 2014

The anti-Semitism canard

Filed under: anti-Semitism,zionism — louisproyect @ 7:06 pm

Israel right-wing protesters attack left-wing activists after they protested in central Tel Aviv against the Israeli attack on Gaza, July 12, 2014. (Photo by Oren Ziv/Activestills.org)

A Google search on “Gaza”, “protests” and “anti-Semitism” produces a jaw-dropping 5,300,000 results. Among them, you can find the Daily Mail, a British tabloid, reporting:

Jewish people are being attacked and abused on the streets of Germany as though the country were back in the Nazi era, political and religious leaders warned yesterday.

Escalating violence between Israel and Hamas in Gaza has prompted a disturbing rise in anti-Semitism in Europe in the last few days.

Murderous slogans dating back to the days of Hitler have been chanted at pro-Palestinian rallies in Germany. Jewish-owned shops were attacked and burned in riots in France at the weekend.

The Israeli ambassador to Germany, Yakov Hadas-Handelsman, said: ‘They pursue the Jews in the streets of Berlin… as if we were in 1938.’

That this sort of thing can be reported while the death toll in Gaza tops 500 strikes me as obscene New York City has about 4 times as many people as Gaza. Can you imagine if bombs and artillery shells had killed 2000 people here in a month? The Zionists direct a lot of their hasbara to New Yorkers, arguing that they should consider what it would feel like if they were being shelled from New Jersey. Since the rockets from Gaza kill nobody, that seems like a piss-poor analogy but what else would expect from a regime drenched in blood and bullshit?

Even more in the spotlight is France, which has experienced the most massive protests against the Israeli blitzkrieg. Vox.net informed its readers:

France has the third-largest Jewish population in the world, after the United States and Israel. It appears to have seen the worst anti-Semitic violence in recent days.

“Eight synagogues in France have been targeted in the past week,” The New York Times reports. Over the July 19-20th weekend, “a radical fringe among pro-Palestinian protesters in the French capital clashed with police, targeting Jewish shops, lighting smoke bombs, and throwing stones and bottles at riot police,” the Times reported.

“They are not screaming ‘death to the Israelis’ on the streets of Paris, ” Roger Cuikerman, head of French Jewish political group CRIF, said. “They are screaming ‘death to the Jews.'”

According to The Independent, a peaceful protest in the northern Paris suburb Saracelles “degenerated” into anti-Semitic violence. “Several cars were burned,” the Independent reported, and “three shops, including a Kosher grocery, were burned and pillaged. A railway station was severely damaged.”

For an alternative take on France, I recommend this article that appears on the Quartiers Libres blog:

In the hours following the skirmish between protesters and JDL members, more messages were posted by JDL members and supporters saying the JDL had acted out of self-defence using only their bare hands against pro-Palestinian thugs, a version that is fully inconsistent with the many pictures and videos of the scene that were widely circulated by independent media websites and militants.

The JDL is banned in the USA and in Israel on account of its extremism and explicit racism. In France, where it is legal, the organisation is regularly guilty of taunts and attacks, as was the case only the week before, when they targeted a rally in support of Gaza. On July 13, by jeopardizing the safety of people gathered in a Synagogue, the JDL has shown it’s now moving on to a new tactical step. Yet although the street fight outside the Synagogue was all over the media, journalists first failed to so much as mention the JDL’s provocations or even the rally itself, sometimes making it sound as though the pro-Palestinian protesters had intentionally planned to attack a Synagogue.

There was never an attack against a Synagogue in previous pro-Palestinian demonstrations, just like there wasn‘t one on July 13: the skirmish broke out in the street between the JDL and antifascist protesters, and there was never an attack on either the Synagogue or the people inside, which all videos shot on that day bring evidence of.

Why didn’t Jewish authorities and non-extremist organizations such as the UEJF condemn the JDL’s rally and why did the police protect the JDL? Could it be that the French authorities are hoping to criminalize pro-Palestinian support?

Ever since I have been involved with the left, I have heard the charge that anti-Zionism and anti-Semitism are the same.

Beyond that, there is also a tendency to smear African-Americans as anti-Semitic any time they step out of line. When Jesse Jackson’s campaign was gathering steam, they crucified him for referring to New York as “Hymietown” in an unguarded chat with a Black reporter.

When a limousine carrying a Hasidic rabbi ran over a Black child in Brooklyn in 1991, the protests were routinely labeled as anti-Semitic even though they were primarily directed at Jewish privilege. When a troubled Black youth stabbed a rabbinical student, the press howled at the Black community, treating it as if it were bent on genocide. The hysteria paved the way for Mayor Giuliani’s administration that had the deaths of a number of Black men and the torture of Abner Louima to account for.

Stepping back from the immediate furor over Gaza, it would be worthwhile to examine the question of anti-Semitism in a dispassionate and historical materialist fashion.

When I was in the SWP, I developed an understanding of racism quite different from the one I had absorbed growing up in a relatively liberal household and attending an even more liberal college. The issue was not about “intolerance”; it was about institutions that kept Black people in a subordinate position. This included red-lining that made it impossible to get a mortgage in the Black community, white owned businesses in the ghetto that gouged their customers, police brutality, underfunding of primarily Black public schools, etc. In other words, what might be called institutional racism.

There was a time when Jews suffered from institutional racism. At the turn of the century, Jews lived in the slums on the Lower East Side and could easily identified by their Yiddish accent. They suffered from discrimination and poverty on a level that matched that of Blacks or other oppressed groups historically. In Germany they were less oppressed despite the specious arguments of Daniel Goldhagen. It was only the Great Depression and the massive influx of Eastern European Jews into Germany that allowed Hitler to make use of the Jews as a scapegoat.

All that changed after WWII when Jews moved out of the tenements and into the mainstream. The second generation (my mom and dad’s) opened small businesses, went to colleges (most often state universities), lost their Yiddish accent, and even changed their last name to fit in. Bernard Schwartz became Tony Curtis and Issur Danielovitch became Kirk Douglas. If you were fortunate enough to make big bucks on Wall Street, you didn’t even have to change your name.

I strongly urge those who have doubts about this to get their hands on Lenni Brenner’s 1986 “Jews in America Today”. I wish some of it was online but unfortunately the only place to go to get a handle on his analysis is a 2003 article he wrote for CounterPunch titled “The Demographics of American Jews”. He writes:

Why then is the Zionist lobby so powerful when their own scholars write endlessly about the alienation of their youth from the movement? The answer is simple: the Jews are the richest ethnic or religious stratum in the US. Because their standard of living is so high, they are the most educated. Because they are the most educated, they are the most scientific oriented, hence most inclined towards atheism or religious skepticism. But the true believer minority still has an unbelievable amount of money to throw at the politicians.

In 1991, I interviewed Harold Seneker, then the editor of the Forbes 400 list of the richest Americans, for an article in The Nation. I told him that I found Jews, 2.2% of the population, to be about 25% of the 400. He told me that he thought this a success story, both for American capitalism and for the Jews, and that he wanted to write a story on it. But Forbes wouldn’t let him. The then publisher had gone thru the Hitler era, when talking about Jewish money was an anti-Semitic specialty.

This mentality is still common on the left as well, and it is wide spread among elderly Jews. Forbes, much of the left, and old Jews share what must be called a ‘folk Marxist’ mentality. Despite the differences in their politics, they all believe that history repeats itself. Someday there is going to be another 1929 Depression. The capitalists will, once again, call up central casting and get another Hitler to smash the left.

This is fantasy. It’s a projection of the past, and Germany’s past at that, into America’s future. In reality, journalists constantly turn out articles for Zionist publications about how Jewish campaign contributors play a major role in funding both parties and, very rarely, the topic is touched on in the mainstream media. “The Political Future of American Jews,” a1985 American Jewish Congress pamphlet by Seymour Martin Lipset and Earl Raab, declared that “While there have been few reliable statistics on the subject — and some reluctance to gather any — the journalistic and anecdotal evidence is overwhelming that more than a majority of Democratic funds on a national level, and as much as a quarter of Republican funds have come from Jewish sources.” They were referring to private contributions, as was an article in the 1/5/93 NY Times announcing that “Jews contributed about 60 percent of Mr. Clinton’s noninstitutional campaign funds.”

My estimate is that 84 of the latest 400 are Jews. The magazine doesn’t list religious affiliations unless the person involved is distinctive in giving to religious charities, etc. And not all of the Jews are pro-Zionists. Some listees are among the educated disaffiliated we are discussing. But Zionist money is prodigious. James Tisch, chair of the Conference of Presidents of Major Jewish Organizations isn’t on the list, altho he is CEO of Loews Corp., listed on the Fortune 500 list. But daddy, Laurence, is, at $2 billion, and uncle Preston is worth $2.3 billion. His predecessors at the Conference were Ronald Lauder, $1.8 billion, and Mort Zuckerman, who struggles along with a penny ante $1.2 billion. Chaim Sabon, $1.7 billion, is a University of California regent. Mayhaps he got the job because he gave the Democrats the largest campaign contribution in American history?

If you really care about anti-Semitism in Europe, the place to go is where you would expect it, not in the Paris banlieues but in the neo-Nazi movements that are growing rapidly in a period of economic hardship.

To put things into perspective, the Anti-Defamation League issued a report on anti-Semitics attacks in 2013 that covered the entire world. Not a single death was reported. Most of the incidents were of the sort that turns up in New York routinely, a swastika scrawled on a Synagogue wall or a gravestone overturned. Compare that to the fate of Muslims who face racism and murder every where they look, from Burma to Kashmir.

In the unlikely event that Jews ever become targets of the ultraright again, I would strongly advise my brethren to think twice about whether to align themselves with the POV expressed in the Daily Mail, the tabloid I quoted at the beginning of this article in light of what Wikipedia reports:

[The publisher] Lord Rothermere was a friend of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, and directed the Mail’s editorial stance towards them in the early 1930s. Rothermere’s 1933 leader “Youth Triumphant” praised the new Nazi regime’s accomplishments, and was subsequently used as propaganda by them. In it, Rothermere predicted that “The minor misdeeds of individual Nazis would be submerged by the immense benefits the new regime is already bestowing upon Germany”. Journalist John Simpson, in a book on journalism, suggested that Rothermere was referring to the violence against Jews and Communists rather than the detention of political prisoners.

Rothermere and the Mail were also editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the British Union of Fascists. Rothermere wrote an article entitled “Hurrah for the Blackshirts” in January 1934, praising Mosley for his “sound, commonsense, Conservative doctrine”, and pointing out that: “Young men may join the British Union of Fascists by writing to the Headquarters, King’s Road, Chelsea, London, S.W.”



  1. I think it’s worse than you think. Generally google returns a search with AND between the variables among the first places, but do a combination of OR too. But, if you put +, which means AND for all results, you get 4,730,000 results. So, the correlation is indeed high.

    Comment by Daniel de França — July 25, 2014 @ 7:28 pm

  2. The Daily Mail is probably the most nauseating of the British Right Wing rags – quite an accomplishment! They recently referred to Ralph Miliband, father of current labour leader Ed, as “the man who hated Britain” – all because Ralph was a Marxist. When the Mail’s past Nazi connection came out, it was a truly delicious moment.

    Comment by George — July 25, 2014 @ 8:44 pm

  3. I’d rather be called an anti-Semite by a Zionist than a Zionist by anyone.

    Comment by J. Marlin — July 25, 2014 @ 9:07 pm

  4. Jews do not suffer institutional racism in the United States nor in any other country, with perhaps a few exceptions in the middle-and near-east. Nor are they an oppressed nationality like the Kurds, Ukrainians, African-Americans or Palestinians. Antisemitism, however, has not disappeared as recent events have shown, in Germany and in France, parts of eastern Europe, and in the Charter of Hamas which has never been repudiated or amended as far as I am aware, to name a number of the more topical examples. Venom directed against Jews is a danger to the cause of the working people for the reason that it takes the fire off the capitalist class and redirects that anger towards the phantom of “the Jews” and assorted Jewish conspiracies. It is disorienting and can ultimately destroy the workers movement, as it played a central role in destroying the workers movement in Europe in the 1920’s and 1930’s. That’s why we must take it seriously and show no quarter when it rears it’s head.

    Comment by Dave — July 26, 2014 @ 12:44 pm

  5. David, there is no evidence of widespread anti-Semitism in these Gaza protests. That is the point. In the 1960s TV networks used to give equal time to tiny counter-demonstrations at massive Vietnam war protests. This is the same thing happening now.

    Comment by louisproyect — July 26, 2014 @ 12:54 pm

  6. I agree with your main points. But as a basically gentile-looking gentile, despite having a (probably) German name that could also be Jewish, I have often been the object of unwanted confidences from both right- and left-wingers who get a certain funny look and start talking about “the Jews” doing this and “the Jews” doing that in exactly the same tone and manner. The confidants range from Argentinian to Egyptian to the kind of Ohio people who like to drink beer and eat bratwurst and talk about how cool the Nazis were.

    Anti-semitism is very real. IMHO, Zionism makes it worse–in spite of the temporary love affair between the likes of Netanyahu and the American right.,

    Comment by Pete Glosser — July 26, 2014 @ 2:46 pm

  7. I don’t think there is widespread evidence of antisemitism in the Gaza protests either. Chicago and New Zealand have had very successful demonstrations in the recent past and in the case of New Zealand, organizers were explicit in letting participants know beforehand that Jew-haters were not welcome. In France and Germany, however, there were problems. The fact that there were provocations by the JDL, and the fact that tensions are running high as a result of the utter brutality of the ruling class of the colonial-settler state is no excuse.

    Comment by Dave — July 26, 2014 @ 4:27 pm

  8. Anti-Semitism and support for Israel’s increasingly rabid Zionism are equally abhorrent. Can there be a sadder vision than that of Jews with their feet on the necks of another people? Perhaps: there is always Obama’s latest declaration of Israel’s “right to defend itself,” and the similar, unanimous vote/declaration of the US Congress. I really cannot abide this shit, and that’s all there is, save for a couple of outlets such as Unrepentant Marxist. So thanks, Louis.

    Comment by Joe Barnwell — July 26, 2014 @ 6:42 pm

  9. Israel is a capitalist country that acts like a country with a capitalist class. The image of a Jew with his foot on the neck of another people is no more distressful than the image of a Russian, a Chinese or an Arab with his foot on the neck of a Ukrainian, a Uighur or a Shia or Christian from Mosul.

    Comment by Dave — July 26, 2014 @ 7:36 pm

  10. By equating anti-Semitism with anything and everything anti-Israel, Israel is the prime cause of anti-Jewish feeling throughout the world. This is exactly the way they want it and the Zionists themselves will continue to stoke the embers of anti-Semitism until it flames up to their expectations.

    Comment by Richard Greener — July 26, 2014 @ 10:14 pm

  11. Antisemitism is in the DNA of capitalism, and class societies preceding capitalism. Israel is, as Hyman Roth once uttered, “small potatoes” compared to this. Of course, to oppose the policies of the Israeli government is not antisemitic, anymore than opposing the polices of South Africa during the apartheid years was anti-Dutch or anti-English. The main division in the world today is between the contending classes, not between people of different nationalities and religions. Which is why in the coming months, years and decades growing numbers of Jewish toilers will come to see they have more in common with Palestinian and Palestinian toilers will come to see they have more in common with Jewish toilers than they do with the current Palestinian leadership which profits from the maintenance of the status quo.

    Comment by Dave — July 26, 2014 @ 11:04 pm

  12. I really don’t have the faintest idea why anti semitism is the “DNA of capitalism, and class societies preceding capitalism”. In fact, you are dismissing the suffering of countless other people. In other words, this is one of the biggest bullshits I ever read.

    Comment by Daniel de França — July 26, 2014 @ 11:22 pm

  13. Maybe you should nominate me for the Guinness Book of Records.

    Comment by Dave — July 26, 2014 @ 11:24 pm

  14. While not directly in response to this article, I’ve posted related comments here: http://trotskyschildren.blogspot.com/2014/07/trotskyists-and-gaza.html

    Comment by Dan King — July 27, 2014 @ 2:11 am

  15. Regarding Hamas, I hope they could use more effective rockets and really hit hard Israel. Not these home made toys. I support Hamas and whoeever gets into this anti colonial struggle. Call me anti semitic, if you wish. From you, I will gladly accept it as an eulogy.

    Comment by Daniel de França — July 27, 2014 @ 2:47 am

  16. Dave, After the holocaust, the image of Jews with their feet on the necks of another people is, indeed, the worst imaginable. Many Jews would agree.
    You seem driven to stress that capitalism is the ultimate enemy of humanity, and as a red (Marxist)-green revolutionary, I would agree. However, although Israel is a capitalist country, its imperial land-grabbing, racism, and slow, calculated destruction of the Palestinian people is the issue here, and needs to be separated from your simplistic, obsessive need to oppose capitalism as the root evil in all situations.
    I forget the source, but someone compared Israel’s pogrom against the Palestinians in Gaza to the Nazi attack on the Warsaw ghetto. There are appalling similarities, and I deeply empathize with the many Jews who are opposing Israel’s genocidal brand of Zionism with their genuine, humane Judaism.

    Comment by Joe Barnwell — July 27, 2014 @ 6:22 pm

  17. Thank-you for your thoughts, Joe. I agree that the historical irony of Palestinians being treated in some of the same ways Jews were treated in Europe in the 1930’s and 1930’s is quite rich, and as a 40 year defender of the Palestinian people, I don’t mean that in a good way. You write: “although Israel is a capitalist country, its imperial land-grabbing, racism, and slow, calculated destruction of the Palestinian people is the issue here, and needs to be separated from your simplistic, obsessive need to oppose capitalism as the root evil in all situations.” But don’t all capitalist countries practice “imperial land-grabbing, racism, and slow, calculated destruction” of the one or more components of the people living within any given border? The death and destruction in Iraq at the hands of the United States lasting over two decades, in eastern Ukraine at the hands of Putin’s mafia-thugs were 300 people were wiped out in one second flat, the absolute mind-numbing destruction in Syria, Nigeria, Iraq, etc…, rivals the destruction handed down to the people of Gaza at the hands of the colonial-settler state, does it not?

    Comment by Dave — July 27, 2014 @ 7:48 pm

  18. I thought Louis had decided that he wouldn’t use the word “antisemitism” any more… anyway, he’s occasionally written posts pointing out people on the left with weird, creepy views of The Jews. Personally I can’t help getting a bit pissed off when I come across that sort of thing (as I just did, elsewhere, a moment ago, which is part of the reason I’m unloading here), but no it’s not any kind of serious threat or major driver of anti-Zionist sentiment. In fact I’ve come across some pretty obsessive Jew haters online who vocally support Zionism.

    Disclaimer: not a commie. Sorry.

    Comment by godoggo — July 27, 2014 @ 11:28 pm

  19. i don’t think the germans are exaggerating here. they are genuinely worried about the resurgence of old hatreds in the context of the mass outcry against the zionist slaughter in gaza.


    Comment by Bob Dannin — July 28, 2014 @ 2:24 pm

  20. Dave, I appreciate your reply and your long support of the Palestinians (which I share). But before the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, I would have gone to war against anti-Semitism and the holocaust, and so it is more than dismaying to me that two of the world’s most cultured, educated peoples–Germans and Jews–have resorted to genocide, and that genocidal ideologies and campaigns are increasingly common worldwide. This speaks poorly of the human species and its future prospects.
    And I know that capitalism is the mortal enemy of humanity and is well on its way to cashing us in without any effective opposition appearing anywhere. The Hegelian-Marxist materialist dialectic recognizes life and society as the systemic processes they certainly are, and capitalism’s globalization represents a systemic, triumphant replacement of living organization with capitalist organization. Humanity has thus been captured in mind as well as labor. I would like to note, though, that land-grabbing, racism, and genocide predate capitalism.
    I used to point to capitalism as humanity’s root problem. Now I see our ultimate problem as being an inadequate perception/consciousness that sees life’s things but misses the critical organization by which material systems such as cells, cats, people, and communities come to life. In other words, we who must consciously organize our lives in various forms of community cannot see and do not understand the organization of community. Anarchism/socialism/communism have never successfully ORGANIZED, and the current “left” shuns the new sciences of organizational relations that are available to us but were absent–save for evolution–in Marx’s and Engels’s time. This current “left” largely ignores or trivializes (systematic dialectics) the materialist dialectic, too.
    What a mess, huh? And nothing gets to me so much as what the Israelis are doing to themselves and the Palestinians, bankrolled by the USA and cheer-led by Barack Obama and the US Congress. Perhaps Secretary of State Kerry will “man up.” It’s our only hope. My red-green best.

    Comment by Joe Barnwell — July 28, 2014 @ 9:07 pm

  21. Regarding the idea that support for Israel is due to the political influence of rich Jews, I found an article that makes some attempt to consider the attitudes of Jewish and non-Jewish Americans, with the former looking comparatively good. It’s maybe a bit deceptive, since it considers secular Jews but not people who are neither Jewish nor Christian, but still worth a look, I think.


    Comment by godoggo — July 28, 2014 @ 11:03 pm

  22. here too it’s worth considering this investigative report. According to Edwy Plenel’s online paper Mediapart, hooligans and skinheads partial to the call of Dieudonné are systematically infiltrating the Gaza protests in France. the reemergence of european antisemitism is not a canard, rather a self-fulfilling prophecy brought about by zionist intransigence and the genocidal acts perpetrated by the idf.


    Comment by Bob Dannin — July 29, 2014 @ 4:37 pm

  23. Oh please, Jew haters can find plenty of reasons to hate Jews. They don’t need the brutes in the Israeli government to give them cause to act out. A good, old-fashioned banking collapse will suffice.

    Comment by Dave — July 29, 2014 @ 9:06 pm

  24. And Israel is not pursuing genocide, either.

    Comment by Dave — July 29, 2014 @ 9:11 pm

  25. BTW when I spoke of Israel-supporting Jew-haters, I was thinking specifically about members of the Polonia blogosphere, who, among other things, tend to voice a lot of resentment over (perceived) Jewish support for Stalin’s 1939 invasion of Poland. I’m not trying to start an argument about this topic, but it is one of their standard talking points.

    Anyway, googling lead me to Wikipedia’s talk page on “Jewish Bolshevism,” which includes the following comment: “This reads like an AIPAC member’s wet dream from start to finish. Complete revisionist garbage.”

    The point being, connecting the article to AIPAC seems pretty obviously silly, but see what happens?

    Maybe I spend too much time on the Internet.

    Comment by godoggo — July 29, 2014 @ 9:44 pm

  26. “and in the Charter of Hamas which has never been repudiated or amended as far as I am aware”

    The Charter of Hamas has indeed been repudiated by the leadership of Hamas itself, on numerous occasions. It was written by a small minority without consultation and consensus, which are cornerstones of internal Hamas decision making. If you read later documents like the 2006 election platform, you’ll find none of that language. Hamas has been working on writing a new charter for a number of years, but as you can imagine it’s not like they can book a conference room in the Hilton for a couple of days lest they all be killed by the IOF, so it’s a slow process.

    Comment by Andy — August 4, 2014 @ 8:56 am

  27. Agreed. 26 years IS a slow process to write a document.

    Comment by Dave — August 4, 2014 @ 9:51 pm

  28. But they have written many other important document since then, and perhaps the most important one is their election platform from 2006 which is constantly ignored by media and opponents of Hamas as it contradicts their message of Hamas being a murderous, intolerant and anti-Semitic organization. The charter has never had much standing within the movement itself. In fact, Hamas issued a document just two years after, distancing itself from the released charter. In essence, it’s a movement without a codified charter. Much like the state of Israel and the United Kingdom don’t have constitutions.

    Comment by Andy — August 12, 2014 @ 9:02 pm

  29. […] July 25th I wrote an article titled “The anti-Semitism Canard” that took aim at the smears of the pro-Palestinian protests in Europe. The gist of my analysis […]

    Pingback by French anti-Semitism: important resources from Lenin’s Tomb | Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist — August 18, 2014 @ 6:15 pm

  30. […] E) Louis Proyect, “The Anti-Semitism Canard” […]

    Pingback by The Jewish Voice for Peace Attack on Alison Weir: JVP Loses Its Balance | Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist — June 25, 2015 @ 1:11 pm

  31. […] E) Louis Proyect, “The Anti-Semitism Canard” <https://louisproyect.org/2014/07/25/the-anti-semitism-canard/&gt; […]

    Pingback by JVP Loses Its Balance: The Weir Wars – Mazin Qumsiyeh | Plato's Guns — June 25, 2015 @ 2:37 pm

  32. Antisemitism isn’t dead by any stretch, it would probably never die, much like popular Ukrainian anti-Polish feelings and popular Japanese anti-Korean feelings. The issue is that antisemitism is no longer the force that it was before, and has been completely and utterly overtaken by violent anti-Muslim ideology that has swept Europe and large parts of Asia and America.

    Comment by Michael T — May 2, 2016 @ 4:07 am

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