Louis Proyect: The Unrepentant Marxist

January 12, 2011

Frank Marshall Davis’s warning to Barack Obama

Filed under: african-american,Obama — louisproyect @ 5:33 pm

Frank Marshall Davis

In Barack Obama’s “Dreams from my Father”, there’s a minor character named Frank who Obama identifies as an 80 year old Black poet who he met as a teenager in Hawaii through his grandfather. While Obama’s recollections about Frank are affectionate, they are also patronizing: “It made me smile, thinking back on Frank and his old Black Power, dashiki self. In some ways he was as incurable as my mother, as certain in his faith, living in the same sixties time warp that Hawaii had created.”

It turns out that Frank is Frank Marshall Davis, a life-long member of the Communist Party. From the wiki on Davis:

Davis used his newspaper platform to call for integration of the sports world, and he began to engage himself with community organizing efforts, starting a Chicago labor newspaper, The Star, toward the end of World War II. In 1945, he taught one of the first jazz history courses in the United States, at the Abraham Lincoln School[10] in Chicago.

In 1948, Davis and his second wife, who had married in 1946, moved to Honolulu, Hawaii, at the suggestion of Davis’s friend Paul Robeson. During this time Hawaii was going through a non-violent revolution between colored labor workers and the white elite known as the Democratic Revolution. There, Davis operated a small wholesale paper business, Oahu Papers, which mysteriously burned to the ground in March 1951. In 1959, he started another similar firm, the Paradise Paper Company.

Davis also wrote a weekly column, called “Frank-ly Speaking”, for the Honolulu Record, a labor paper published by the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU) headed by Harry Bridges.[11]Davis’ first column noted he was a member of the national executive board of the Civil Rights Congress,[12] cited as a Communist subversive organization by President Harry S. Truman’s Attorney General Tom Clark.[13] The paper had been founded in 1948 by Koji Ariyoshi , and closed in 1958. Davis’s early columns covered labor issues, but he broadened his scope to write about cultural and political issues, especially racism. He also included the history of blues and jazz in his columns.

You can find all sorts of attempts in the rightwing blogosphere to turn Obama into some kind of Manchurian Candidate based on his grandfather’s friendship with Frank Marshall Davis and his supposed tutelage at the red poet’s knees. But it would appear that Obama and Frank were a world apart based on this excerpt from Obama’s memoir. He is just about to start his freshman year at Occidental College and Frank is warning him about how he would be indoctrinated to serve the ruling class in college rather than the Black community. Frank had the gift of prophecy, it would appear.

The only thing that Frank gets wrong is Obama occupying a “corner office”. It turned out that he landed the grand prize, the oval office. His ambition, his Machiavellian skills, his shrewdness and his chameleon qualities propelled him into an office where he could exercise real power as opposed to just merely being a “well-trained nigger”, to use Frank’s words.

Dreams from my Father, page 97:

What had Frank called college? An advanced degree in compromise. I thought back to the last time I had seen the old poet, a few days before I left Hawaii. We had made small talk for a while; he complained about his feet, the corns and bone spurs that he insisted were a direct result of trying to force African feet into European shoes. Finally he asked me what I expected to get out of college. I told him that I didn’t know. He shook his big, hoary head.

“Well,” he said, “that’s the problem, isn’t it? You don’t know. You’re just like the rest of those young cats out here. All you know is that college is the next thing you are supposed to do. And the people who are young enough to know better, who fought all those years for your right to go to college—they’re just so happy to see you in there that they won’t tell you the truth. The real price of admission.”

“And what’s that?”

“Leaving your race at the door,” he said. “Leaving your people behind.” He studied me over the top of his reading glasses. You’re not going to college to get educated. You’re going there to get trained. They’ll train you to want you don’t need. They’ll train you to manipulate words so they don’t mean anything anymore. They’ll train you so good, you’ll start believing what they tell you about equal opportunity and the American way and all that shit. They’ll give you a corner office and invite you to fancy dinners, and tell you that you’re a credit to your race. Until you want to actually start running things, and then they’ll yank on your chain and let you know that you may be a well-trained, well-paid nigger, but you’re a nigger just the same.”


  1. Louis, is this article a clever way for you to call Obama a “nigger”? What’s the point of leftists whining about the man’s policies when it was obvious that his election didn’t represent the triumph of a progressive social movement but the effective manipulation of civil rights imagery. The moment Obama appeared to have a real shot at the White House the vast majority of Black voters signed on for the novelty of it. Obama promised them nothing except that a “Black family” would occupy the White House. He has delivered on that promise. The Obama phenomenon was nothing more than a variation on taking the Black vote for granted. A trick performed by Black as well as White politicians. You should spend time analyzing why recent mass movements such as the one among Hispanics for reform of immigration status didn’t take off.

    Comment by lextheimpaler — January 12, 2011 @ 6:26 pm

  2. Considering the way Obama is always cowering to Big Business maybe corner office is an accurate description after all.

    Comment by SGuy — January 12, 2011 @ 7:26 pm

  3. […] Louis Proyect puts the whole ugly mess in perspective in a short commentary providing a clear indication of how thoroughly sold out Barack Obama was by the time he reached the US Senate, and just how corrupt this administration was destined to be from the beginning. In Barack Obama’s “Dreams from my Father”, there’s a minor character named Frank who Obama identifies as an 80 year old Black poet who he met as a teenager in Hawaii through his grandfather. While Obama’s recollections about Frank are affectionate, they are also patronizing: “It made me smile, thinking back on Frank and his old Black Power, dashiki self. In some ways he was as incurable as my mother, as certain in his faith, living in the same sixties time warp that Hawaii had created.” […]

    Pingback by A Two Party Tyranny | Thurman's Notebook — January 12, 2011 @ 7:50 pm

  4. Louis, is this article a clever way for you to call Obama a “nigger”?

    That’s a fatuous accusation. He was relating a conversation from Obama’s book. Were we to follow your logic, we could ask: Was Obama’s Dreams From My Father just a clever way to call himself a “nigger”?

    Comment by Mark Elliot Cullen — January 12, 2011 @ 8:32 pm

  5. Yeah, you gotta be digging pretty deep to find that one, Lext. There’ve been reams of the sort of analysis you suggest LP ought to have offered, sent out by him as well as many of the other people who post here.

    As for the comments from Frank Davis, like, seen, seen, seen, as the old Rastas used to say. And how typical of Obama not to even talk about the cat’s real contributions.

    Comment by Michael Hureaux — January 12, 2011 @ 9:01 pm

  6. Never heard of Frank Davis before this post. Thanks for pointing his life and work out to this still very ignorant worker.

    Comment by Thurman — January 12, 2011 @ 9:09 pm

  7. Had the reds in the ILWU not organized in Hawaii, the state would not have been as kind to Obama as it was. He is so arrogant that he thinks this history is quaint, irrelevant for today, just as the Vietnam War can’t tell him anything about Afghanistan. Doug Henwood reported that Mayor Bloomberg called Obama the most arrogant man he had ever met. Pretty amazing given Bloomberg’s own arrogance. I think the next two years and, if it happens, a second Obama term will show us even clearer than the first two years of his administration who the victims of this arrogance will be. People, get ready!

    Comment by michael yates — January 12, 2011 @ 9:25 pm

  8. A fatuous accusation? I don’t think so. Let’s not kid ourselves Whites tend to see Blacks as symbols rather than as individuals. Leftists see Blacks as pathetic victims or as heroic but doomed freedom fighters, on the Right they are sub-humans and a menace. I didn’t accuse Louis of anything I asked him a provocative question, that’s all. Obama’s book was his way of figuring out what sort of man he would become and what price he was willing to pay. He choose to reject his friend’s worldview and created his own path. I may not like it, Louis may not like it but it wasn’t our choice to make. M.E. Cullen use your logical mind to determine why the recent social movements went nowhere. Marxists are supposed to be the conscious element so stop whining and find out what went wrong and critique it mercilessly.

    Comment by lextheimpaler — January 12, 2011 @ 9:46 pm

  9. lextheimpaler, I gather you’re struggling with your racist impulses, and I respect that, but the tendency of folks who subscribe to anti-racism theory to project their racism on others is awfully tiresome. Louis was right that Frank Davis was right. Davis used the language, not Louis. When Malcolm X talked about house niggers, that was his term. Should the rest of us have to say “house n-words”? Do you believe Huckleberry Finn should be de-niggered? In my youth, like many folks involved in the civil rights struggle, I was called a nigger-lover. Am I supposed to say I was called an n-word-lover now? I assure you, I do not love euphemisms. They tend to be middle class conceits used to control discourse, and when we’re talking about what people said, we should just say what they said. Context matters, and so does history.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 12, 2011 @ 10:12 pm

  10. As the son of Frank Marshall Davis, I have been fighting right-wing disinformation against my father since 2008. I have also posted more recently at http://kaleokualoha2878577.newsvine.com, mostly in response to Dr. Paul Kengor’s accusations.

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 12, 2011 @ 11:37 pm

  11. Just imagine how the streets would look if McCain was president now. It was a deft move on the part of the ruling class (or a section of it) to invite Obama to run. Obama as prez has neutered the the most militant sections of the working class. Not only that, he will serve as an effective sedative post-presidency, to be trotted out whenever there is trouble.

    Comment by purple — January 13, 2011 @ 12:05 am

  12. While it might be true that Mr. Davis saw himself as an avowed communist, I suggest he might not be the icon alluded to in your post. For instance, Mr. Davis’s sexual appetites – which included the encouragement and practice of pedophilia – don’t speak highly of his moral fibre. For a bit more situating, I touched on Obama’s ‘mentorship’ under Mr. Davis in this old post: Digging Through Obama’s Closet (http://sophrosyne.radical.r30.net/wordpress/?p=4028).

    Comment by khephra — January 13, 2011 @ 2:49 am

  13. “Mr. Davis’s sexual appetites – which included the encouragement and practice of pedophilia – don’t speak highly of his moral fibre”?

    Sorry, but this is a hoax, and suggests you have been misinformed. Davis wrote a semi-autobiographical NOVEL. You may not be aware of this, but a novel is a work of FICTION! In this regard, Davis’s book is like Samuel Clemens “Roughing It,” in that they were both written under pseudonyms that were also fictional characters in their stories:

    “Samuel Clemens wrote autobiographical novels under the pseudonym “Mark Twain,” including “Roughing It,” which “follows the travels of young Mark Twain through the Wild West during the years 1861–1867. After a brief stint as a Confederate cavalry militiaman, he joined his brother Orion Clemens, who had been appointed Secretary of the Nevada Territory, on a stagecoach journey west. Twain consulted his brother’s diary to refresh his memory and borrowed heavily from his active imagination for many stories in the novel.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roughing_It)

    In both cases authors used pseudonyms to publish autobiographical novels that were “fictionalized but still based upon actual occurrences.” In both cases these novels presented fictionalized adventures of their pseudonymous characters. Does anyone claim that the adventures of “Mark Twain” literally occurred in the life of Samuel Clemens, because “Mark Twain” said they happened? If not, then why should anyone claim that the adventures of Bob Greene literally occurred in the life of Frank Marshall Davis, because “Bob Greene” said they happened? Fair weather principles indicate bias.

    You will find that contrary to fairy tales drifting around the blogosphere, Davis never “admitted” that any of the events from his novel actually happened in real life. You will find that critics are trying to railroad Davis with trumped-up evidence, just like Mike Nifong tried to railroad the Duke lacrosse team, Andrew Brietbart tried to railroad Shirley Sherrod, and Dr. Hatfill was railroaded in the anthrax letters case.

    The issue is rather simple: Either you literally attribute fictional characters’ stories to their authors’ real lives, or you accept that fictional characters’ stories are fiction. By definition, even semi-autobiographical novels are fictionalized accounts of their authors’ own lives. Research should reveal that ALL fictional narrators of such novels claim the events are true, although their actual authors make no such claims!

    Calling Davis a pedophile based on his novel makes no more sense than calling David Letterman a pedophile based on his joke. Both accusations were widespread in the right-wing blogosphere, and reflect the pinnacle of intellectual dishonesty. Both misrepresent the core values of artists by spreading falsehoods that gullible readers accept as truth, and who then spread further in good faith.

    Such misrepresentation exploits mainstream unawareness of literary styles such as the semi-autobiographical novel (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autobiographical_novel or http://www.artandpopularculture.com/Autobiographical_novel), memoir-novel (see http://www.answers.com/topic/memoir-novel-1 or http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O54-memoirnovel.html) and the first-person narrative (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First-person_narrative or http://www.artandpopularculture.com/First-person_narrative), by claiming that the artist actually experienced fictional events when it serves their disinformation purposes. Deliberate misrepresentation is the foundation of disinformation campaigns, such as the campaign against Barack Obama and Davis.

    “Truth is generally the best vindication against slander.” – Abraham Lincoln

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 13, 2011 @ 2:57 am

  14. I’m perfectly willing to accept the possibility that Mr. Davis has been slandered and many of the charges against his character may be inflated. Nevertheless, I find it difficult to be so dismissive of the accusations (which seem far more substantive than those levied against Mr. Assange, IMO). For instance, here’s a (slanderous?) rendering from Telegraph.co.uk (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/2601914/Frank-Marshall-Davis-alleged-Communist-was-early-influence-on-Barack-Obama.html):

    In a surviving portion of an autobiographical manuscript, Mr Davis confirms that he was the author of Sex Rebel: Black after a reader had noticed the “similarities in style and phraseology” between the pornographic work and his poetry.

    “I could not then truthfully deny that this book, which came out in 1968 as a Greenleaf Classic, was mine.” In the introduction to Sex Rebel, Mr Davis (writing as Greene) explains that although he has “changed names and identities…all incidents I have described have been taken from actual experiences”.

    He stated that “under certain circumstances I am bisexual” and that he was “ a voyeur and an exhibitionist” who was “occasionally mildly interested in sado-masochism”, adding: “I have often wished I had two penises to enjoy simultaneously the double – but different – sensations of oral and genital copulation.”

    The book, which closely tracks Mr Davis’s life in Chicago and Hawaii and the fact that his first wife was black and his second white, describes in lurid detail a series of shockingly sordid sexual encounters, often involving group sex.

    One chapter concerns the seduction by Mr Davis and his first wife of a 13-year-old girl called Anne. Mr Davis wrote that it was the girl who had suggested he had sex with her. “I’m not one to go in for Lolitas. Usually I’d rather not bed a babe under 20.

    “But there are exceptions. I didn’t want to disappoint the trusting child. At her still-impressionistic age, a rejection might be traumatic, could even cripple her sexually for life.”

    He then described how he and his wife would have sex with the girl. “Anne came up many times the next several weeks, her aunt thinking she was in good hands. Actually she was.

    “She obtained a course in practical sex from experienced and considerate practitioners rather than from ignorant insensitive neophytes….I think we did her a favour, although the pleasure was mutual.”

    On other occasions, Mr Davis would cruise in Hawaii parks looking for couples or female tourists to have sex with. He derived sexual gratification from bondage, simulated rape and being flogged and urinated on.

    He boasted that “the number of white babes interested in at least one meeting with a Negro male has been far more than I can handle” and wished “America were as civilised as, say, Scandinavia”. He concluded: “I regret none of my experiences or unusual appetites; for me they are normal.”

    I guess, in this case, I’m not really willing to extend ‘the benefit of the doubt’…

    Comment by khephra — January 13, 2011 @ 3:06 am

  15. While it might be true that Mr. Davis saw himself as an avowed communist . . .”

    This is another myth, mostly spread by right-wingers, but also by communist kooks such as Alan Maki (see http://my.barackobama.com/page/community/post/Kaleokualoha/gGxk2C). Davis was NOT an “avowed communist.” He was a closet member of the CPUSA who never admitted membership in public.

    Davis NEVER advocated socialism, communism, Marxism, or collectivism. There is no evidence that Davis EVER discussed these topics with Obama, or that Obama was even aware of Davis’s CPUSA connection. Misrepresenting Davis was collateral damage that enabled critics to more easily smear Barack Obama.

    Davis’s actual 1950 “Frank-ly Speaking” column has been posted online for years (http://www.hawaii.edu/uhwo/clear/HonoluluRecord1/frankblog1950.html). Davis wrote:

    “As for free enterprise, it doesn’t live here any more. At the same time we have manufactured a national horror of socialism. Meanwhile, the dictatorship of the monopolies is driving us down the road to ruin. And so, with still rising unemployment and a mounting depression, the time draws nearer when we will have to decide to oust the monopolies and restore a competing system of free enterprise, or let the government own and operate our major industries.”

    “Backbone of Free Enterprise Broken: In this control by monopoly, the small businessman, the backbone of free enterprise, has been a casualty. He cannot compete against the tremendous financial reserves of the huge monopolies, and thus we find more and more forced into bankruptcy or absorbed by the monopolies. Those small businessmen who supported the Marshall Plan have been unable to get but a pittance of orders, for here it’s the Big Boys Who, through their contacts with official Washington, walk off with the fat contracts.”

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 13, 2011 @ 3:13 am

  16. Davis NEVER advocated socialism, communism, Marxism, or collectivism.

    You can say the same thing about the CPUSA after Browder took charge.

    Comment by louisproyect — January 13, 2011 @ 3:17 am

  17. Having written a couple of semiautobiographical novels, I have to second Kaleokualoha: only the writer knows what’s truly autobiographical.

    And I’ll add that even if Davis did have sex with a thirteen-year-old, it doesn’t sound like the writing of a pedophile. Pedophiles don’t stop with one encounter, and most of them don’t go after girls who are of the age of consent in New Hampshire. If you’re going to accuse anyone of pedophilia, you should do a little research on the condition.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 13, 2011 @ 3:25 am

  18. Kaleokualoha, one more thought: Using their logic, they might as well accuse Agatha Christie of being a mass murderer.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 13, 2011 @ 4:38 am

  19. Again, I willingly concede that *I don’t know what happened*. I didn’t know Mr. Davis in person and even if I did it wouldn’t necessarily mean that I knew him – the other is always completely Other.

    Mr. Kaleokualoha, you clearly have vested interests in defending a certain image of Mr. Davis, but I think it worth emphasizing that I do not share this investment. My interest is far less emotional and far more reflexive: I’m curious where and how this colourful figure fits into the narrative of power. Further, I think it especially worth pointing out that I do not think it a fault of Mr. Davis’s if he was a communist, and on the basis of your insistence that he wasn’t communist I find myself thinking we may have very different hermeneutic (and political) predispositions…

    Mr. Shetterly, how many pedophiles’ writing practices have you solicited? Similarly, can you speak to symmetries in character and pathology among pedophiles, and if so, on what basis?

    Re. the analogy between Agatha Christie and Mr. Frank’s use of plot devices, I think this is conceptually bankrupt. To draw this metaphor guts each act of its potency: In Ms. Christie’s case murder is used as a literary plot device to gel characters and narrative within an anglo-centric moral gloss, whereas Mr. Davis (theoretically) uses pedophilia and sadism to nuance a character which closely matches Mr. Davis’s life-path. From appearances, it seems to me as though Mr. Davis’s use of pedophilia and sadism are not plot devices but projections of (sublimated?) identity. But, again, I didn’t know him, and even if I did it wouldn’t mean he didn’t do the things he wrote about.

    Having read much of the Marquis de Sade and Aleister Crowley’s oeuvre I’m no foreigner to sexy or sadistic lit. But maybe I’m completely wrong and Mr. Davis was an ‘upstanding family-man & god-fearing American patriot’… To be honest, it’s not really a question that leaves me burning for resolution…

    Comment by khephra — January 13, 2011 @ 6:09 am

  20. Khephra, I grant that you may know far more about the writings of pedophiles than I do, but then, I don’t try to smear people’s reputations based on fiction they wrote for publishers who paid for adult content.

    Since you don’t like the Agatha Christie example, pick any crime writer you like who wrote from the point of view of the criminal. By your logic, Jim Thompson was a serial killer and Ayn Rand loved rape.

    I think your first statement was correct: You’re not about to give anyone whose politics you dislike the benefit of the doubt. Seriously, “fiction” and “semiautobiographical” mean the writer alone knows what’s true.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 13, 2011 @ 7:10 am

  21. My interest is in exposing both the truth and lies about my father. My interest is in challenging those who misrepresent him for their own reasons. My interest is in revealing primary source evidence that refutes such disinformation.

    I feel blessed to have been trained in Deception Analysis in 1989. It has helped me to understand the nature of disinformation campaigns. Perhaps this is my purpose in life.

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 13, 2011 @ 7:19 am

  22. Khephra, I just followed the first link you offered. It has a picture of Obama pissing on America. Should I now assume you’re into water sports?

    No. Because I’m an adult, and I understand that art is rarely meant literally.

    By the way, I wrote a couple of novels about a half-human, half-wolf kid. It’s in the first person. The kid sometimes talks about typing with his claws. I hope it does not shock you to learn that I do not have claws, or even a snout.

    For some reason, I suppose because I had heard that Davis was a poet, I assumed he wrote for Grove Press, which had some literary ambitions. Turns out he wrote for Greenleaf Press, a conventional porn house, the sort of place that paid people $500 for novels written over a weekend. If that’s your standard, you might as well conclude that Raymond Chandler lived Philip Marlowe’s life.

    And, I hope my last comment on this, in the course of googling to learn a little more about the book, I discovered the story you’ve told is mostly repeated on mighty creepy sites. Unless you’ve got a link to Davis admitting the book is autobiographical, what you’re doing by promoting this story is simple slander.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 13, 2011 @ 7:44 am

  23. Because a similar story was published by The Enquirer, this response bears repeating:

    I think it’s important to say this often and in full — The Enquirer has no evidence that Frank Marshall Davis was a “sex pervert.” They absolutely don’t have evidence that he raped anyone, child or no. The entirety of their claimed “proof” is that Davis admitted to authoring a pulp novel in which these acts are committed, and that the novel in question was promoted and written as a shocking tell-all memoir about some anonymous black rebel.

    In case you’re not familiar with the genre, pulp/exploitation novels were almost invariably “based on a true story,” “autobiographical,” etc. This both helped them sell better and supposedly shielded them from some legal attacks. In addition, quite a few authors in that era made a living writing pulp anonymously. It was the equivalent of today’s acres of ghostwritten romance/Tom Clancy novels.

    The Enquirer’s claim has no credibility — not because it’s the Enquirer, but simply because their assertion that “Sex Rebel: Black” is documentary evidence is invalid.

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 13, 2011 @ 8:03 am

  24. Kaleokualoha, I got another one for you: Anyone who thinks your father’s pulp novel is autobiography must think Daniel Dafoe was both Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders. Sheesh.

    Comment by will shetterly — January 13, 2011 @ 2:32 pm

  25. Kaleokualoha,

    Hi hope you are well. I never heard of your dad but I am sorry about all this talk about him. Feel comfort in the fact that these accusations are indeed being raised. If your dad had no influence then he would have been forgotten and have slipped from memory.

    Please tell me where I can read some of his poetry. I am writing poetry again.


    John Kaniecki

    Comment by john kaniecki — January 13, 2011 @ 2:57 pm

  26. Don’t know about Davis but my letters to Penthouse are 100% TRUE. I mean, I never thought I’d be writing to Penthouse until one night……

    Comment by Rojo — January 13, 2011 @ 6:47 pm

  27. John: Copies of “Black Moods,” a collection of his poetry, are available through Amazon: http://www.amazon.com/Black-Moods-Collected-American-Recovery/dp/0252027388

    Comment by Kaleokualoha — January 13, 2011 @ 7:06 pm

  28. Louis is correct about the main point. Obama was on the path of compromise.

    Comment by Renegade Eye — January 13, 2011 @ 9:56 pm

  29. […] “You’re not going to college to get educated. You’re going there to get trained.” Maybe Obama should’ve listened to this advice. (Unrepentant Marxist) […]

    Pingback by Around the Web | Left Eye On Books — January 14, 2011 @ 12:34 am

  30. There is a black man lived a very long time. His name is Sylvester Magee, the very last former slave living, ever. Magee lived to be 130 years and he does not know how to read.

    Comment by V.E.G. — May 6, 2011 @ 4:08 pm

  31. […] us that Obama’s “mentor,” Frank Marshall Davis, was a communist. In fact, Obama condescended and dismissed Davis in his autobiography. Dinesh D’Souza locates the roots of Obama’s “rage” […]

    Pingback by Mapping Out American Political Writing with a Little Help from Amazon | Left Eye On Books — August 28, 2012 @ 11:59 am

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